By Don Harrawood, Koi Health Advisor, Southwest Koi & Pond Association
This article has been reprinted in several NW Koi publications.
Green water and string algae are different forms of algae. Both can cause considerable problems for ponds throughout the year. Green water differs from string algae in that it cannot be physically removed from the pond; whereas string algae is stringy or hair like, and can be physically removed.
What Causes Green Water?
Green water is caused by the presence of millions of microscopic algae particles, each consisting of one cell. This algae occurs naturally in almost all bodies of water, and can be a problem in ponds during the spring and summer months. In order to grow, algae requires light and nutrients. An excess of either can result in heavy growth and very green water. The nutrients required for algae to grow are normally nitrate and phosphate. Green water is normally worse during summer months when days are longer, temperatures are warmer, and light is stronger. These factors greatly increase the rate at which green water can occur.
What Causes String Algae?
String algae occur naturally in almost all bodies of water and is encouraged to grow by the presence of phosphate, nitrate and sunlight. Phosphate is a vital component of fish foods and therefore enters the water through uneaten food and fish waste. Nitrate is produced as the end product of the biological filtration and through the natural breakdown of organic matter in the pond. Nutrient concentrations tend to build up in the pond over time particularly in the summer when the fish are more active and being well fed. The increased sunlight plus these increased nutrient levels dramatically accelerate the growth of string algae with some species being capable of doubling its weight each day or two.
Steps for Avoiding Green Water and String Algae Problems
There are a number of pond management techniques that can be called upon to help reduce the growth of algae:
First, you should feed your fish only high quality fish food. Poor quality diets are not well digested by the fish, resulting in excess waste being produced that contribute greatly to a high nutrient load into the pond. This excess of nutrients will stimulate an increased growth of both types of algae.
Adding plants to the pond can also help limit the growth of algae, since aquatic plants compete with the algae for the nutrients in the pond water. Water lilies in particular are great for this purpose, since their leaves help cover the ponds surface and shut out much of the sunlight required to stimulate the growth of algae.
Keep the pond bottom clean and clear of sediment. Decaying of this sediment increases the nutrient load for stimulating the growth of algae.
Controlling Green Water
The most effective way to control green water is the addition of ultraviolet lights (U.V. lights) to the pond water circulation system. These devices work by irradiating the pond water that flows through them with ultraviolet light. This ultraviolet light kills green water algae, allowing it to clump together, so that it can be separated from pond water by a filter. This is an excellent method of keeping a pond free from green water year around. It is important to size the ultraviolet light correctly, as its effectiveness depends on the contact time between the light and the water passing through. In general, an ultraviolet light should support a flow rate that allows the pond total water volume to pass through the light every hour. U.V. bulbs should be replaced approximately once per year in order to keep the unit working effectively. The quartz sleeve containing the bulb should be checked and cleaned periodically. If it gets dirty it will cut down on the amount of ultraviolet light reaching the water.
There are other means of removing green water if you do not have an ultraviolet light. These methods are more temporary. There are many products on the market for adding to pond water to remove green water algae. One I will mention is called AlgaeFix. This product when added, as directed to your pond water, causes the green water algae to clump, so it can be filtered out with a pond filter, or can be skimmed off the water surface with a skimmer net.
The addition of aquatic plants to compete with the algae for nutrients, and to shade the pond to deprive algae of essential light are two natural means of reducing the green water effect. A large water change will remove green water temporarily; however it returns rather rapidly.
Controlling String Algae.
The most effective way of removing string algae is by mechanical means; however this method is distasteful to most people. Again, there are numerous products on the market that will kill string algae. AlgaeFix does a very effective job of killing string algae and eliminating green water when used as directed. After the string algae is killed, you will need to remove the floating dead algae from the pond. Numerous plants in the pond will reduce algae by competing for nourishment from pond water. The addition of shade to the pond will decrease the growth of string algae, since it deprives it of needed sunlight in order to thrive.